Pruning describes the removal of plant parts to manage plant growth. Trees with branches that are well-spaced up the trunk, shrubs with thick, healthy foliage: this is the ideal we all strive for. A few minutes spent pruning is one of the best things you can do for your plants, and the returns are well worth the effort. Pruning techniques vary according to plant species, location and desired results.
Growth definition pruning: first years after planting.
- Establishes good structure for young trees
Maintenance pruning: annually
- Maintains a desired form or shape
- Promotes plant health
- Encourages flower and fruit development
- Promotes fuller foliage
- Opens the crown to sunlight and air circulation
- Removes excess, dead, weak or gangly branches
Rejuvenation pruning: Done over more than one season and as needed
- Involves cutting branches right back to stimulate new growth
Lopping: when necessary
- Involves cutting off large branches
Fruit-tree pruning: is done annually
- Encourages fruit production on fruit trees and shrubs.
How to prune
Here are a few simple rules for effective pruning.
- Cutting angle: Cut small branches diagonally at a 45º angle about 0.5 cm above the bud and run your cut in the same direction as the bud.
- Cutting back a long branch: Use pruning shears or a saw to cut the branch at the branch crotch, where a secondary branch leads out in the same direction as the branch you are cutting, preferably horizontally or along the underside of the branch you are cutting.
- Reshaping the central leader: The central leader is the prolongation of the trunk at the summit of a tree. If the leader has been broken, cut it back to a strong side shoot that is growing fairly vertically. Attach a stake to the new leader training it upwards. If there is more than one leader, select the strongest and most in line with the rest of the tree, and remove the others.
- Removing a branch at the trunk: Don't cut a branch flush with the trunk. Cut it just above the branch collar. This collar is, in fact, scar growth that will quickly close the cut.
Removing branches 3 cm in diameter or more:
Three cuts will be necessary when cutting large branches to avoid tearing the bark:
- Make the first cut on the underside of the branch 30 to 40 cm from the trunk, one third to one halfway through the branch.
- Make the second cut a few centimeters further out on the branch above the original cut. Saw until the branch brakes free.
- Make the final cut just beyond the branch collar. Don't leave a stub. If the branch collar is left intact, the wound will seal more effectively.
- Use the correct tools and keep them sharp.
- Clean tools after each use to avoid spreading disease.
- Always wear protective eyewear.
- Avoid pruning in the rain or if wood is wet in order to prevent disease.
- Stop often, stand back and evaluate what you have done before you continue.
- Leave fresh cuts alone so that they dry faster and heal naturally. Plants produce their own enzymes against rot and disease.